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Mr. Diamond muddy diamond Muiskraal Multifacet Diamond (trademark PDF Print E-mail
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Friday, 21 September 2007

Mr. diamond. A trademarked name for colorless synthetic corundum.

muddy diamond. A little-used trade term for a diamond of inferior bril­liancy, which is caused by a lack of transparency resulting from the pres­ence of numerous minute inclusions or extensive fractures and cleavages. Often refers to a gray-brown color; sometimes also a greenish color.

Muiskraal. A minor alluvial diamond deposit in the Potchefstroom area, Transvaal Province, Republic of South Africa. The annual yield from this deposit is negligible.

Mujgawan. The name of a town in Vindhya Pradesh, India, near which is located a diamond-bearing kim-berlite pipe. See india.

Multifacet diamond (trademark). A

name used to describe a standard brilliant cut upon whose girdle has

been polished at least 40 flat facets.


multiple-layer diamond dressing tool. A multiple-diamond dressing tool that contains several Diamonds set in several layers within the matrix of the tool.

Murfreesboro. Arkansas town in Pike County near the largest diamond-bearing kimberlite pipe in the United States. The Crater of Diamonds State Park is 2V2 miles south of Murfrees­boro where visitors may search for Diamonds for a fee.

Mutzschen diamond. A misnomer for rock crystal.

Mwadui Mine. The principal dia­mond mine in Tanzania, formerly called Tanganyika Territory, Africa. This is the famous Williamson Mine, now owned jointly by De Beers Con­solidated Mines, Ltd., and the Gov­ernment of Tanzania. See Tanzania.

Myrtle McFarlin Canary diamond.

See MC FARLIN diamond.

motichul Mounce Diamond Mountain of Splendor Diamond Moyat PDF Print E-mail
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Friday, 21 September 2007

motichul. A Hindu word meaning a clear and brilliant diamond.

Mounce diamond. The Mounce rough, weighing 18.20 carats, is the tenth largest diamond found in the United States. It was discovered in

1969 by a girl playing in her yard at Princeton, Louisiana. C. E. Mounce, a Shreveport jeweler, purchased the stone and had it cut by Lazare Kap­lan & Sons into three stones. A 3.47-carat oval, the largest •■stone, was named the La Mounce and re­tained by Mr. Mounce. A 2.75-carat heart shape and a 2.27-carat mar­quise were sold for an undisclosed sum to unknown buyers.

Mountain of Light diamond. See

KOH-I-NOOR diamond.

Mountain of Splendor diamond.

Reported in some older works to have been a 135-carat diamond in the Persian Regalia. Nothing else is known of this stone. In 1966 this diamond was not among the Crown Jewels of Iran according to Dr. V. B. Meen.

mounted goods. (1) Diamonds that have been set in rings. (2) Diamonds set in any kind of jewelry. See goods. mounting. A trade term for that por­tion of a piece of jewelry in which a gem or other object is to be set or has been set.

Moyat (first name unknown). An in­vestigator who, in the late 1800's, at­tempted unsuccessfully to produce synthetic Diamonds by pressing iron filings and carbon particles in a con­tainer filled with liquid carbon dioxide and applying an electric cur­rent. See SYNTHETIC diamond.

Moyen, or Middle, Congo. One of

the minor diamond-producing ter­ritories in what was French Equato­rial Africa. Moyen Congo became the Congo Republic (not to be con­fused with Zaire, which is the suc­cessor to the Belgian Congo). This former French colony lies to the

northeast of the Congo and Ubangi Rivers.

Moon Diamond Mooifontein Moon of the Mountains Diamond PDF Print E-mail
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Friday, 21 September 2007

Mooifontein. A minor alluvial dia­mond deposit in the Bloemhof area, Transvaal Province, Republic of South Africa. The production from this deposit is unimportant.

Moon diamond. A diamond iden­tified by this name, weighing 183 carats, was sold at auction in 1942 to an H. W. Thome for the low figure of £5200, then passed into the hands of a foreign potentate, whose name was not divulged. The Moon was de­scribed as a well-cut brilliant, almost circular, rather thick, but with good fire and a faint tinge of yellow. It was 1% inches in diameter and had a 41-facet crown, the bezel facets being divided into two parts. Almost cer­tainly not Indian in origin, it is more probably South African, which would account for its lack of history. Further details are unavailable.

Moon of Baroda diamond. The Moon of Baroda is said to have been in the family of the Gaekwar of Baroda for about 500 years. It is a 24.95-carat, pear-shaped, canary-

yellow Indian diamond. It was sent to the Empress Maria Theresa of Aus­tria in 1787 by the then Gaekwar, but was later returned to him. The stone was exhibited in Los Angeles in 1926, and in 1944 the then Gaek­war sold it to Meyer Rosenbaum, De­troit jeweler, for a sum reported to be about $100,000. If it crosses water, it is said to be unlucky for its owner.

Moon of the Mountains diamond. Although the Moon of the Mountains was known to be among the Russian Crown Jewels in the nineteenth cen­tury, today it is considered to be another celebrated "lost" diamond of history. The description of this 126-carat Indian diamond by early chroniclers may have been faulty. Some present-day investigators be­lieve that it may have been confused with the Great Mogul, Orloff and Darya-i-Nur, all of which may refer to the same stone that was taken from Delhi by the Persian conqueror Nadir Shah and eventually given to Catherine the Great by Prince Orloff.

Mora diamond. A misnomer for rock crystal.

Morgenzon. A minor alluvial dia­mond deposit in the Kimberley area, Cape Province, Republic of South Af­rica. Current production from this digging is minuscule.

Morrissey diamond. See dewey dia­mond.

Morrow diamond. Largest diamond found in Georgia; a 4.50-carat yel­lowish crystal. Discovered at Mor­row Station, Clayton Co., 1887. Pres­ent location not known.

Morse, Henry D. A Boston diamond merchant and cutter who is said to have originated (about 1865), by trial

Mogok diamond Molopo Reserve PDF Print E-mail
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Friday, 21 September 2007

Mogok diamond. A misnomer for

colorless topaz found at Mogok,


Mogul diamond. See great mogul


Mogul (or Moghal, Mughul) Dynasty (1562-1857). Founded by Baber the Mongol. The Mogul Empire em­braced all of northern and central India and the Afghan lands about Kabul and Kandahar. The greatest of Baber's descendants were Akbar, Shah Jehan and Aurangzeb. After the death of Aurangzeb (1707), the Em­pire declined rapidly. In 1739, Nadir Shah, of Persia, sacked Delhi, the capital of the Empire, and the title of "Great Mogul" that was given to the emperors became but a name. The Mogul emperors had vast stores of gems, particularly Diamonds. Taver-nier, often referred to as "the father of the diamond trade," traveled exten­sively in India, and at the court of Aurangzeb he saw a diamond some­times known as the Great Mogul, as well as many other gems. See great


Mohs scale. The most commonly used scale of relative hardness of minerals: diamond, 10; corundum, 9; topaz, 8; quartz, 7; feldspar, 6; apatite, 5; fluorite, 4; calcite, 3; gyp­sum, 2; talc, 1. The divisions are not equal, having been chosen arbitrarily by the German mineralogist, Mohs. The difference between 9 and 8 is considerably greater than between any of the lower numbers. Between 9 and 10 the difference is greater than between 9 and 1. See hardness,


Moissan, Ferdinand Frederic

Henri (1852-1907). A French chemist who, in 1893, claimed to have produced minute Diamonds by fusing iron and carbon in an electric furnace and plunging the molten mass into water or molten lead. There was never any conclusive proof that the tiny hard crystals made by this process were actually Diamonds. See synthetic dia­mond.

Molopo Reserve. A minor alluvial diamond deposit in the Mafeking area, Cape Province, Republic of South Africa. Current production is negligible.

Monastery Mine. A small diamond pipe mine in the Winburg area, Orange Free State, Republic of South Africa.

monocular microscope. A magnifier equipped with a single objective and ocular (eyepiece). See microscope. Montleleo Mine. A small diamond pipe mine in the Winburg area, Orange Free State, Republic of South Africa.

monzonite. A silica-rich plutonic igneous rock said to be associated

with Diamonds in Minas Gerais, Brazil.

Mittag Modder River Moe gauge PDF Print E-mail
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Friday, 21 September 2007

Mittag. See area m.

Mittagong. An alluvial diamond min­ing area 80 miles southwest of Syd­ney, Australia. The Mittagong Dia­mond Mine (Southeys Mine) oper­ated in this area from 1893 to 1895. The recovery of Diamonds was very poor.

mixed cut. A gem cut in which the crown is round brilliant cut and the pavilion is step cut. Sometimes the reverse is seen.

MMTC. Abbreviation for the state-owned Minerals and Metals Trading Corporation of India; in part, dealing in rough Diamonds.

Modder River. A tributary of the Vaal River, between Kimberley and Bloemfontein, Republic of South Af­rica. It was once an important allu­vial diamond-mining district.

moderne cut. See fancy-cut diamond. mode rose cut. A flat-backed rose cut that has a hexagonal outline with 6 facets on the dome side.

Moe gauge. A caliper-type gauge that, together with accompanying ta

bles, is used to estimate the weights of either mounted or unmounted round brilliant-cut Diamonds by measurements of width and depth. It is not a precision instrument. See mil­limeter MICROMETER, LEVERIDGE GAUGE.

Mogul cut. An older style of cutting which is a rather lumpy form with a broad, often asymmetrical base, an upper termination consisting of a set of usually four shallow facets or a ta­ble, and two or more zones of strip facets parallel to the base and ori­ented vertically. It is derived from cleavage pieces. The Taj-e-mah Di­amond illustrates this cut.

Last Updated ( Friday, 21 September 2007 )
Minas Gerais Miner Diamond Mirror of Naples Diamond mishkal PDF Print E-mail
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Friday, 21 September 2007

Minas Gerais (Mean"-ahs Zhee-rice"). A major diamond-producing state in Brazil. See brazIl, minas


Minas Gerais diamond. Found on the San Antonio River, Minas Gerais, Brazil, 1937; 172.50 carats. Only one stone, a brilliant of about 80 carats, is reported to have been cut from this rough. Location unknown.

Minas Triangle. A famous dia­mond-mining area in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Famous for large stones (including the Darcy Vargas and the Presidente Vargas) and fancy-colored Diamonds.

Miner diamond. A 44.62-carat well-crystallized rough diamond found in the Mir pipe. Now in the U.S.S.R. diamond Fund in Moscow.

Miridis. A trade name for synthetic rutile.

Mirnyy. The center of the dia­mond-mining activity in eastern Siberia. See u.s.s.r.

Mir pipe. One of the richest di­amond-bearing kimberlites in east­ern Siberia located in the basin of the Lesser Batuobiya tributary to the Vil-yui in Yakutiya. The pipe is oval in section, about 400 to 600 meters in diameter at the top. Mining is dif­ficult because of permafrost condi­tions causing the soil and ground to be frozen to depths of 350 meters, even in summer.

Mirror of Naples diamond. A fine-quality diamond; size unknown. Be­longed to Mary, sister of Henry VIII, who married Louis XII of France. At

that time, valued at about 30,000 crowns ($37,500). Further historical details lacking.

Mirror of Portugal diamond. James I of England, writing to his son the Prince of Wales, who later became Charles I, mentioned the "Mirroure of Portugall Dyamont," then appa­rently owned by him. Later, during the Civil War, Charles' wife, Queen Henrietta Maria, is said to have taken the gem to France and to have pledged it with the Duke of Epernon. Cardinal Mazarin is said to have paid off the Duke with the Queen's con­sent and to have taken possession of the diamond. The stone is believed to have later been known as the Wth-Mazarin or the Mazarin. Be­queathed by the Cardinal, together with other fine Diamonds, to Louis XIV, it became part of the French Re­galia, which was stolen from the Garde Meuble (Royal Treasury) dur­ing the great jewel robbery of 1792. (Note: Cardinal Jules Mazarin (1602-1661) was a French cardinal and statesman and prime minister under Louis XIV. He is given the credit, if not for developing the ear­liest form of the brilliant, at least for popularizing it.)

mishkal. Early traditional unit of Muhammedan weight. The mishkal was described as equaling 40 rati and the Koh-i-Nur was reported by Sultan Barbar to weigh about 8 mish-kals.

Mitchemanskraal. One of the more productive alluvial diamond deposits in the Barkly West area, Cape Prov­ince, Republic of South Africa. The total output of one recent year was approximately 3400 carats.

Master Cutters' Association of South Africa Matan Diamond millimeter Millionaire Diamond PDF Print E-mail
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Friday, 21 September 2007

Master Cutters' Association of South Africa. An organization of diamond cutters in the Republic of South Af­rica.

Master diamond-Cutters' Associa­tion of South Africa. An organization composed of employers of diamond cutters in the Republic of South Af­rica.

master (or key) Diamonds. Fashioned Diamonds of known color grades that are used as comparison stones when grading other Diamonds for body color. Also sometimes called a dia­mond yardstick. See diamond-yardstick


Matan diamond. The Matan is one of a number of Diamonds that is shrouded in secrecy and mystery. A Borneo stone, it is rarely shown and

Milford diamond. A 6-carat dia­mond crystal of fine color that was found near Milford, Clermont Co., Ohio, in 1879. Its present where­abouts is unknown.

milky diamond. A diamond that has a milky or hazy appearance. This condition usually is caused by clouds of exceedingly minute inclu­sions. Excessively fluorescent dia­monds sometimes have a milky ap­pearance in daylight.

mill. (1) In the diamond-cutting trade, a term sometimes used for the lap, or scaife, on which Diamonds are ground and polished. (2) In diamond mining, the building or buildings and adjacent establishment in which Diamonds are recovered from kim-berlite by crushing, panning, jigging, and washing over greased tables.

millimeter. Metric system unit of length based upon the meter (meter = 39.37 inches) as a standard of measurement. One millimeter (ab­breviated mm) equals 0.001 meter. Approximate U.S. equivalent 0.04 inch equals one mm. There are 25.4 mm per inch.

millimeter micrometer. A precision caliper gauge that measures the overall dimensions of unmounted fashioned gems accurately (to 0.01 mm) but less conveniently than dial gauges. The new millimeter microm­eter features a direct reading digi­tal scale for quick, easy, accurate measurement of stones from 0.01 mm to 25.50 mm.

Millionaire diamond. See recent dia­mond.

Mimosa. A minor alluvial diamond deposit in the Schweizer Reneke area, Transvaal Province, Republic of

South Africa. Less than 100 carats was reported from this deposit in one recent 12-month period.

Marine Diamond Corporation Marmo ra diamond marquise cut PDF Print E-mail
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Friday, 21 September 2007

Marine diamond Corporation (Pty.), Ltd. A company that was organized in 1961 to exploit off-shore diamond deposits along the coast of South­west Africa. The concession area ex­tends north from the Orange River to the town of Luderitz. See south-west


marine terrace. See terrace

mark. A term used by a few jewelers in selling as a substitute for the more conventional clarity grading termi­nology; for example, slightly marked or very slightly marked in place of slightly imperfect or very slightly imperfect.

markings (on diamond). See growth markings.

Marmarosch diamond. A misnomer for rock crystal.

Marmora diamond. A misnomer for rock crystal.

Marquise cut

marquise cut (mar-keez"). A style of diamond cutting in which the girdle outline is boat shaped. The shape

and placement of the facets is of the brilliant type.

Marsden, R. S. A British scientist who, in 1880, claimed to have pro­duced synthetic Diamonds from a solution of amorphous carbon and molten silver. There is no proof that his experiments were successful. See synthetic diamond.

Martapura. A city in Kalimantan (formerly Borneo), in the vicinity of which are located some of the is­land's principal diamond deposits.


Martian Pink diamond. A flawless 12.03-carat pink round brilliant dia­mond, purchased by Harry Winston, New York City gem merchant, in 1975. It was exhibited in June of 1976 at the opening of the new Gem and Mineral Hall at the American Museum of Natural History. In July 1976 the diamond was christened the "Martian Pink" in honor of the American achievement of landing a scientific probe on the surface of the planet Mars. It was shortly thereafter sold to an unknown client in the United States.

Marvelite. Trade name for man-made strontium titanate.

Mascarenhas I and II Diamonds.

Seen by Tavernier in Goa in 1648. Belonged to Portuguese Viceroy, Dom Philip Mascarenhas. 57 and 67.50 carats, good quality, Indian cut. Additional information lacking.

mass. A term sometimes used for a rough diamond during the early phases of the fashioning operation.

massa. A Brazilian term for diamond deposits lying high on the hills and plateaus above present watercourses.

Maraetchesfontein Maria Diamond Marie Antoinette Diamond Neck­lace PDF Print E-mail
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Friday, 21 September 2007

Maludi Mine. An alluvial diamond

mine in Angola, Africa. See angola.

Manana. A minor alluvial diamond

deposit in the Lichtenburg area,

Transvaal, Republic of South Africa.

See lichtenburg.

mangelin. A Hindu weight equal to

13/b carats.

manik. An old East Indian term for

greenish Diamonds.

mantle. The interior zone of the

earth below the crust and above the

core extending from about 35 km

below the ocean basins to a depth of about 2900 km. It is bounded at the top by the Mohorovicic discontinuity and at the bottom by the Gutenberg discontinuity. Some geologists be­lieve that the diamond bearing kim­berlite rocks originated in or near the upper part of the mantle. See crust.

Maraetchesfontein. A minor alluvial diamond deposit in the Schweizer Reneke area, Transvaal Province, Re­public of South Africa. This digging makes a very insignificant contribu­tion to total South African alluvial production.

Maranhao. A state in Brazil that is a minor producer of Diamonds. See


Marek, Jan Ivo. A British investigator who, in collaboration with an asso­ciate, Frederick B. Salt, claimed to have produced synthetic Diamonds by using the Moissan method but substituting lignite in place of car­bon. It is apparent that the experi­ments were unsuccessful. See mois­san, FERDINAND FREDERIC HENRI; SYNTHETIC diamond.

Maria diamond. Maria Komemkima discovered this 106-carat rough at Yakutskaya, Siberia, 1966. At that time, it was the largest diamond found in the Soviet Union. The Maria is now in the Russian diamond Fund, Moscow.

Marico. A minor alluvial diamond deposit in Transvaal Province, Re­public of South Africa.

Marie Antoinette diamond Neck­lace. Long associated with Marie Antoinette, Queen of France in the late 18th century, this was one of history's most famous pieces of jew-

beneath the continents and 10 km

Maiden Lane Major Bowes Diamond Mallin Diamond Mines PDF Print E-mail
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Friday, 21 September 2007

Maiden Lane. The New York City street that was once the center of the diamond and jewelry industry in America. Although it is still impor­tant, 47th Street has replaced Maiden Lane in importance.

main facets. An all-inclusive term that refers to the large crown and pavilion facets of a brilliant-cut dia­mond or other gem. See bezel facets,


Majorana, Q. An investigator into the problem of diamond synthesis who, in 1897, claimed to have made Diamonds by using an electric cur­rent to heat carbon in a steel con­tainer at the same time that it was compressed by an explosion of gun­powder. There is no proof that his experiments were successful. See

SYNTHETIC diamond.

Major Bowes diamond. Once owned by the famed originator of the radio amateur hour, the Major Bowes is a 44.50-carat yellow diamond. He willed it to Cardinal Francis Joseph Spellman of New York, Rpman Cath­olic clergyman and author. Subse­quent owners were C. C. Kaufman of New York City and Erwin Wol-lands of Cleveland, Ohio. In 1958, while in the possession of Jack M. Werst, Miami, Florida, gem dealer, the gem was stolen in an armed rob­bery and has never been recovered.

make. A trade term that refers to the proportions and finish of a fashioned diamond; for example, good make refers to a stone that is well pro­portioned, symmetrical and well polished. Also said to be well made.


makeables. Trade term used by dia­mond designers for whole stones (diamond crystals) which are ground without preliminary work. Includes macles, cleavages, chips, etc.

Mali Federation. A new country made up of the former French ter­ritories of Senegal and French Sudan (now the Sudanese Republic). A number of kimberlite pipes were dis­covered by prospecting parties of the mining directorate before indepen­dence was achieved. They are lo­cated in West Sudan, in the cliffs of Tambouara, in the Faleme River ba­sin. Several large Diamonds have been found. See French west africa.

Mallin diamond Mines, Ltd. The

mining company that works a small dike, or fissure, in the Transvaal, at Zwartruggens, Republic of South Af-

rica. The fissure extends for more than 9000 feet, but has a width of only one to three feet. Annual recov­ery is on the order of 100,000 carats from a relatively small tonnage of blue ground processed. Yield is usu­ally over 140 carats per 100 loads, mostly of industrial quality. Mallin diamond Mines, Ltd., is a wholly owned subsidiary of Carrig Dia­monds, Ltd.

Macquarie River Mafeking Magna Cut (trademark) Mahalaxmi Diamond-Mining Works PDF Print E-mail
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Friday, 21 September 2007

Macquarie River. One of the princi­pal diamond-producing localities in New South Wales, Australia. See Aus­tralia.

made. A term used to refer to a fashioned diamond when describing the quality of its cutting, as in well made or poorly made. See make, poorly made, well made.

Mafeking. A town in Cape Province, Republic of South Africa, and the lo­cation of minor alluvial diamond diggings.

mafic. (1) A mnemonic adjective re­lating to dark-colored rock-forming silicate minerals rich in magnesium and iron, such as olivine, am-phiboles, pyroxenes, and biotite. (2) Applied to dark-colored igneous rocks composed predominantly of ferromagnesian rock-forming sili­cates, e.g. gabbro. (3) synonym for basic; a misleading and undesirable term used for dark-colored igneous rocks. See igneous rock; ultramafiq basic igneous rock.

Magalux. Trade name for synthetic spinel.

Magna cut

Magna Cut (trademark). A rarely used modification of the standard brilliant cut. It has 60 facets and a table on the crown and 40 facets and a culet on the pavilion. Its symmetry is tenfold (decagonal), instead of eightfold (octagonal), as in the 58-facet brilliant. The four-sided bezel facets of the latter are each replaced by two triangular facets, and an addi­tional break facet is placed between every pair of break facets, resulting in 10 star facets, 20 bezel facets, 30 upper-girdle facets, 30 lower-girdle facets, and 10 pavilion facets.

magnifier. Any optical instrument or device that magnifies. See loupe, mi­croscope, GEMOLITE, DIAMONDSCOPE, HEAD MAGNIFIER.

Mahalaxmi diamond-Mining Works.

A diamond-mining company in the Panna district, Madhya Pradesh, In­dia. See india.

Mahanadi River. A river in India, about 600 miles northeast of the Golconda group, on which early diamond mines were located.

Mahomet IV diamond. A legendary stone of 24 carats. Found in Constan­tinople on a heap of rubbish by a poor man during the reign of Ma­homet IV (1648-87). The finder sold the stone for a pittance, but it was later seized by the Grand Vizier and added to the Imperial Treasures. It adorned the Imperial Plume of the Sultan of Turkey on parade days. Present-day ownership denied by Topkapi Muzesi Mudurlugu, where Turkish Regalia is kept. Alternate spelling: Mohammed IV diamond.

Last Updated ( Friday, 21 September 2007 )

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